Cartography and Art (Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography)
This book is the fruition of work from contributors to the Art and Cartography: Cartography and Art symposium held in Vienna in February 2008. This meeting brought together cartographers who were interested in the design and aesthetics elements of cartography and artists who use maps as the basis for their art or who incorporate place and space in their expressions. The outcome of bringing together these like minds culminated in a wonderful event, spanning three evenings and two days in the Austrian capital. Papers, exhi- tions and installations provided a forum for appreciating the endeavors of artists and cartographers and their representations of geography. As well as indulging in an expansive and expressive occasion attendees were able to re? ect on their own work and discuss similar elements in each other’s work. It also allowed cartographers and artists to discuss the potential for collaboration in future research and development. To recognise the signi? cance of this event, paper authors were invited to further develop their work and contribute chapters to this book. We believe that this book marks both a signi? cant occasion in Vienna and a starting point for future collabo- tive efforts between artists and cartographers. The editors would like to acknowledge the work of Manuela Schmidt and Felix Ortag, who undertook the task of the design and layout of the chapters.
cartographer’s creativity. To me, therefore, it is clear that cartography is primarily a set of transformations of spatial data, and the cartographic process is consequently data-driven. This is clearly evident, in a Toblerian sense, in the geometric transformations which occur when we capture data in the field or we geocode a real world location into a spatial data base. Rules exist to ensure that real space can be transformed into coordinate 26 David Fairbairn space at a reduced scale, and
(Kroeber-Riel 1993). In general communication, even basic level communication like gestures or mimicing, identifies some needs, which make bi-directional transmission of information possible. With these needs the importance of graphical coding can be shown and leads to the abstraction process in the brain, which is relevant for the interpretation and virtual reproduction of space. Linguistic dimensions, by means of technology, biology and culture, enable understanding and further-on interaction
representation of georelief which applied the principle of ‘air perspective’ in representation of mountain relief on orthogonal map are also doubtless. 7.6 Conclusions The fact that a map can provoke kind of reader’s reaction similar to that induced by an artistic works is certain. The map fulfils its cognitional functions by means of signs that are visualised thanks to graphic variables (Bertin 1967) – size, shape, colour, texture, value and orientation. If additional tools of artistic painting
components (diagrams, photos, text, etc.). However, there exist other factors which influence map creation and concrete conditions that force the map creator (or processor) to choose only some map stylistical features out of many that may be presented. 13.2 Map Style-Forming Factors Map style-forming factors can be either objective or subjective. Objective styleforming factors are mainly map theme and composition, map purpose or technical facilities. These are briefly described below. Map theme
template for the well known map Tabula Peutingeriana (Figure 14.4, Austrian National Library, Vienna). The Viennese humanist Conradus Celtis (1459–1508) discovered it in the library of a Benedictine abbey in Tegernsee (Germany) at end of 15th century (1494) and gave it as a gift to his colleague Konrad Peutinger (1465–1547) who collected old maps and manuscripts (Clark and Black 2005). After carefully considering this unique record of the past, it was concluded that the original map was produced