China's Drug Practices and Policies: Regulating Controlled Substances in a Global Context
In the context of global efforts to control the production, distribution and use of narcotic drugs, China's treatment of the problem provides an important means of understanding the social, political, and economic limits of national and international policies to regulate drug practices. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, China was known for its national addiction to opium, but its drug-eradication campaigns from the 1950s to the 1970s achieved unprecedented success that ultimately transformed China into a "drug-free" society. However, since the economic reforms and open-door policy of the late twentieth century, China is now facing a re-emergence of the production, use and trafficking of narcotic drugs. Employing case studies and a comparative historical approach, and drawing on a variety of data sources including historical records, official crime data only recently made available, and news reports, this book is the first English-language publication to provide such a comprehensive documentation and analysis of the nature of China's legal regulation of controlled substances. The authors also offer theoretical approaches for studying drug regulation, aspects of drug consumption cultures, the socio-political treatment of drugs during various historical periods and ongoing efforts to legislate drug trade, criminalize drug use and manage the drug addict population within national and international contexts.
10 For the impact of losing ideology on the Tiananmen Square event, see Zhao, 1997. Narcotics Control in the People’s Republic of China 101 Law, and Judge’s Law (Data from Law Yearbook of China 1986–2005). It was officially announced in 2002 that China had accomplished its task of building a preliminary legal system.11 Second, along with the accelerated lawmaking process, China’s legalization efforts have had a strong emphasis on rebuilding its legal system, including the judicial system,
and the growing popularity of these substances among the young people in cities across China.15 Narcotics Trafficking Drug smuggling in China began to seriously re-emerge in the early 1980s and gradually escalated in the 1990s. Due to the influence of international narcotic trafficking, particularly in the Golden Triangle region of the Southeast Asia, China was inevitably brought into this global trade network. While no systematic data exists on the amount of narcotic drugs smuggled into China
problem in many countries over the last two centuries. Specific regions of the world have been the primary sources of opiates and other controlled substances. For example, the “G olden Crescent” (i.e., Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Iran) has been the primary opiates producer and distributor of opiates (especially heroin) in the last century. The principal source countries for cocaine have been Columbia, Bolivia, and Peru (for discussions of the international drug trade see Arnold, 2005; Inciardi
Black’s theory that is not supported by our analysis involves the style of law. In particular, Black (1976) contends that law will have a more penal style or form when applied to lower-ranking individuals and a compensatory style when applied to higher-ranking members. However, there are clear instances across China’s history in which this assumed relationship between stratification and the style of law is not evident. For example, a decree of the Qing government in 1813 subjected palace
Chinese population were either heavy or regular opium addicts between 1879 and 1906 (S ee S u and Zhao 1998; Newman 1995). T he decrease in the estimated number of drug addicts from around 1906 to the mid-1910s occurred in the same general period in which several royal edicts (1906, 1909) and a criminal code (1907) reaffirmed and stipulated the legal prohibition of opium use. During this last decade of its rule, the Qing government was under great internal and external pressures for political and