Infectious Diseases of Wild Mammals and Birds in Europe
Infectious Diseases of Wild Mammals and Birds in Europe is a key resource on the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases in European wildlife that covers the distinctive nature of diseases as they occur in Europe, including strains, insect vectors, reservoir species, and climate, as well as geographical distribution of the diseases and European regulations for reporting, diagnosis and control. Divided into sections on viral infections, bacterial infections, fungal and yeast infections, and prion infections, this definitive reference provides valuable information on disease classification and properties, causative agents, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and implications for human, domestic and wild animal health.
• Brings together extensive research from many different disciplines into one integrated and highly useful definitive reference.
• Zoonotic risks to human health, as well as risks to pets and livestock are highlighted.
• Each disease is covered separately with practical information on the animal species in which the disease has been recorded, clinical signs of the disease, diagnostic methods, and recommended treatments and vaccination.
• Wildlife vaccination and disease surveillance techniques are described.
• Examines factors important in the spread of disease such as changing climate, the movement of animals through trade, and relaxations in the control of wide animal populations.
dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). Veterinary Pathology. 1992;29:1–10. 94. Kennedy, S., Smyth, J.A., Cush, P.F., et al. Histopathological and immunocytochemical studies of distemper in harbor porpoises. Veterinary Pathology. 1991;28:1–7. 95. Kennedy, S., Smyth, J.A., Cush, P.F., et al. Histopathologic and immunocytochemical studies of distemper in seals 4. Veterinary Pathology. 1989;26:97–103. 96. Philippa, J.D.W., van de Bildt, M.W.G., Kuiken, T., ’t Hart, P. & Osterhaus, A.D.M.E.
weak or deformed offspring, or the birth of viraemic offspring may result. The northern European strain of BTV8 is unusual as transplacental transmission in cattle seems to be astonishingly common and rates in excess of 30% have been reported(9). The reasons for this are uncertain, but this strain of BTV8 originated from sub-Saharan Africa, a region where live BTV vaccines have been used for decades. It is possible that this BTV8 strain has acquired one or more genome segments from a vaccine
gland. WNV antigen is most often observed in the cytoplasm of neurons, glial cells of the brain (Figure 9.2), macrophages, blood monocytes, myocardiocytes, fibrocytes, tubular epithelial cells of the kidney, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells of arteries, the epithelial cells lining the air capillaries of the lungs, enterocytes, pancreatic exocrine cells, hepatocytes, smooth muscle cells of the lamina muscularis mucosae in the small intestine and follicular epithelial cells of the thyroid
then present with clinical disease upon infection or show reduction in egg or meat production(56). Furthermore, LPAIV of the H5 and H7 subtypes may become highly pathogenic once introduced into poultry populations, potentially bearing high economical costs and a zoonotic risk. Poultry infected with LPAIV may become bridge species, transmitting LPAIV to other species, including domestic animals and humans. LPAIV have also resulted in outbreaks of severe respiratory disease in farmed mink and
and avian distemper. ND viruses are also found in transcontinentally migrating birds. In Asia, ND is known as Ranikhet disease (India), Tetelo disease (Japan) or Korean fowl plague. In the USA, a neurotropic respiratory form of ND is known as avian pneumoencephalitis. Another clinical entity of ND is termed exotic Newcastle disease (END) in the USA, to differentiate it from endemic Newcastle disease. Following natural exposure, highly virulent ND viruses (NDV) cause severe epidemics with high