Music of the Twentieth Century
Ton de Leeuw
Music of the Twentieth Century goes beyond a historical survey with its lucid and impassioned discussion of the elements, structures, compositional principles, and terminologies of twentieth-century music. De Leeuw draws on his experience as a composer, teacher, and music scholar of non-European music traditions, including Indian, Indonesian, and Japanese music, to examine how musical innovations that developed during the twentieth century transformed musical theory, composition, and scholarly thought around the globe.
normal tempo. Only from the romantic period onwards was there a tendency to move away from these average values, undoubtedly with the aim of achieving greater expression. Since rhythm is the highest and most autonomous expression of time-consciousness, as such it is not necessarily bound to lower categories. But it is often woven into the fibre of modal patterns, which in turn may be incorporated into the elementary periodic movement of the pulse unit. These three layers do not differ in essence,
predominates. Rhythmically speaking, the accelerated movement in (B) is retarded in (C). Tension generated by the thrust is not released by the dotted rhythm but rather by the rustling of the percussion, which therefore fulfills a most essential role in the melodic proceedings! As in Bartók we see strongly developed chromaticism (the twelve chromatic notes are introduced at the very beginning) which, however, is embedded in the tonal framework A -D . Again there is mention of the same type of
relationships distilled from the overtone series were not accepted as an article of law. A development in this direction was made possible by the adoption of equal temperament, not as a compromise but as an autonomous division of the octave into twelve equal chromatic notes. A first consequence was that the difference in traditional notation between G and A , for instance, disappeared. The note G /A gained an autonomous quality of its own. The harmonic and melodic development was now determined
unambiguously evoked the spirit of ancient Castile. There is perhaps no other work that so clearly reveals the bond between man and soil. The first traces of Negro music in Europe – leaving aside Dvor˘ák, Debussy and Ravel – take us to the period around . Stravinsky: The Soldier’s Tale (), Ragtime (), Piano Rag-Music (); Hindemith: Suite (), Kammermusik (); Milhaud: La Création du Monde (), Negro ballet; Krenek: jazz opera Johnny spielt auf (); Weill:
horizontal line represents the middle of the note range and therefore amounts to a further expansion of the notation system. The composer indicates that the player must read from left to right. example In Stockhausen’s Zyklus for percussion, the spatially enlarged score can also be turned upside down. The piece employs the ring binder with unnumbered pages found elsewhere since Boulez’s Third Piano Sonata. Each composer begins his score with a page full of instructions. It would be premature