Pavlov's Dogs and Schrödinger's Cat: Scenes from the living laboratory (Popular Science)
From the sheep, dog, and cockerel that were sent aloft in Montgolfier's balloon to test the air over Paris, to the famous clone Dolly the Sheep and the Darwinian finches of the Galapagos, Pavlov's Dogs and Schrödinger's Cat offers a fascinating and enlightening look at the use of plants and animals--including humans--in scientific experiments. Rom Harré here provides a fresh and fascinating perspective on research, setting aside moral reflection to simply examine the history of how and why living creatures have been used for the purposes of discovery. Ranging over five centuries, the book uncovers many extraordinary stories, including tales of the people involved, to many curious incidents and episodes, and the occasional scientific fraud. From Gregor Mendel's use of pea plants to explore heredity, to Barry Marshall's use of himself as the experimental animal in his helicobacter experiments (he survived) and even the use of an imaginary cat in Schrödinger's famous thought experiment, the reader discovers here a perspective on scientific work he or she has never encountered before--the concept of the "living laboratory."
through lungs? How is its heat dissipated so that the body temperature remains more or less the same? How does it carry nutritive substances around the body? In discussions that began around the years 1650-1 Boyle and his friends gradually formulated a workable research programme. The first step in trying to answer these deep questions would be to try to follow in detail how blood circulated. In this vacuum of hypotheses the development of the research programme led to a series of experimental
venous system just at the moment at which an animal was killed, allowed the whole of the blood vascular system to be observed in all its finer ramifications, except of course for the fine blood vessels, called capillaries. These had been observed in the lung of a frog by Marcello Malphigi (1628-94) some years earlier, and this work was known to Wren and Lower. An article by Malpighi describing his observations of capillaries in a frog’s lung had been published in the Proceedings of the Royal
(1643–79), who perhaps has some claim to have isolated the substance we call oxygen and to have understood its role in combustion and breathing. Mayow realized that air consisted of two different kinds of particles, only one of which sustained combustion and life. His experiments with nitre (sodium nitrate) had convinced him that ‘the igneo-aërial particles common to nitre and air are not the air itself but very subtle particles which fixed in [that is, combined with] air and in nitre constitute
a few more, to the biology of all dogs. They also served as evidence for more sweeping claims about the biology of all mammals, humans included. This further expansion of the claims for the experiments’ results involved the assumption of an essential similarity in digestive systems among hippos, dogs, human beings, and so on. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov was born on 26 September 1849 in the small town of Ryazan in Russia. When he was nine years old he fell from a fence onto a brick floor landing on his
Vavilov (1887–1943). Vavilov supported the extension of the vernalization experiments, but he interpreted them very differently. They did not show a change in the nature of the varieties of wheat but exploited aspects of the conditions under which the wheat plant developed from the first sprouting. Change of the nature of plants is genetic. While continuing to lean on the support of Vavilov, Lysenko began a campaign against genetics and by implication against geneticists. This is the technique of