Psychology in Practice: Crime (Psychology In Practice Series)
Psychology in Practice is the definitive six-part series on the practical applications of psychology to areas of everyday life, covering crime, education, health, sport, organisations and the environment. Each book in the series examines one unit of the Applications of Psychology section of the OCR syllabus.
Psychology in Practice: Crime covers the application of psychology to our understanding of criminal behaviour. Forensic psychology has significantly expanded over recent years and now makes a valuable contribution to the investigation of crime, the development of treatment programmes for offenders, crime prevention, and research which can provide the basis of expert testimony in the courtroom.
Key learning aids include:
- a set of key terms for each chapter
- practical exercises
- section summaries and overall main chapter points
- recommended further reading and web sites
- sample examination questions based on OCR specimen materials.
illegal drugs, and some toxins such as lead; head injuries, and pregnancy or birth complications. 4. Personality characteristics such as impulsivity, insensitivity, a physical and nonverbal orientation, and a tendency to take risks. 5. Thinking patterns that focus on trouble, toughness, smartness, excitement, fate and autonomy; an exaggerated sense of ‘manliness’; a tendency to think in terms of shortterm rather than long-term consequences; a tendency to see threats everywhere and to believe that
However, the technique is time consuming and police officers need specific training from professional psychologists. False allegations of crime What if there is a suspicion that someone is making up their report of a crime and the police need to establish the validity of the allegation? A technique called statement analysis was developed by German psychologists to test the truthfulness of witness statements, particularly in cases of child sexual abuse (Gudjonsson, 1992). The basis of this
treatment quite cynically in order to secure earlier release or less intrusive supervision in the community. Perkins (1990), however, strongly argues the case for treating sex offenders on the following grounds: • • treatment may enable sex offenders to modify their behaviour, while no treatment clearly will effect no change. treatment may counteract the negative influences of Offender punishments and treatments, and preventing crime • • • imprisonment, e.g. confined contact with other sex
the individual, playing down the possible influence of social factors. In other words, the reason someone is criminal is the result of internal or innate characteristics, rather than the consequence of being brought up in a poor environment. If we believe that criminals are very different to the rest of us, it is not too big a step to assume that they will also look quite different to the rest of us. Subsequent labelling and stereotyping can help us identify this group and reinforce our belief in
portray villains. Could it be that we are not very nice to people whom we consider unattractive, and that over time these individuals begin to lose faith in themselves and act to fit their stereotype? Masters and Greaves (1969) surveyed the incidence of facial deformities in 11,000 prisoners and concluded that 60% of them had facial deformities, by comparison with 20% in a non-criminal population. This finding raises the possibility that some of these individuals turned to crime because of the