Victoria Charles, Klaus H. Carl
Deriving from the French word rocaille, in reference to the curved forms of shellfish, and the Italian barocco, the French created the term Rococo. Appearing at the beginning of the 18th century, it rapidly spread to the whole of Europe. Extravagant and light, Rococo responded perfectly to the spontaneity of the aristocracy of the time. In many aspects, this art was linked to its predecessor, Baroque, and it is thus also referred to as late Baroque style. While artists such as Tiepolo, Boucher and Reynolds carried the style to its apogee, the movement was often condemned for its superficiality. In the second half of the 18th century, Rococo began its decline. At the end of the century, facing the advent of Neoclassicism, it was plunged into obscurity. It had to wait nearly a century before art historians could restore it to the radiance of its golden age, which is rediscovered in this work by Klaus H. Carl and Victoria Charles.
Page 102 AC Rococo 4C.qxp 2/25/2010 9:18 AM Page 103 AC Rococo 4C.qxp 11/24/2009 10:20 AM Page 104 Pozzo also published a widely appreciated book – Perspectiva pictorum et architectorum. His fame had long since come to the attention of Emperor Leopold I in Vienna (1640-1705), for whom he painted a wonderful false cupola in the Baroque Jesuit Church. But also the Princes of Liechtenstein engaged his services and commissioned him to decorate their garden palace. This fantastic opulence
of Sanssouci. He developed both the north façade on the Lustgarten (Pleasure Garden) and the south front on the Schlossplatz (the castle square), and above all he created, in the formation of the architectonic structure of the inner courtyard, to which he ascribed greater importance than the external frontages, a masterpiece of sublime perfection. The Prince Elector was then crowned King in Königsberg, and moved into the Renaissance château into the new Schloss in 1701. The building was
multi-courtyard arrangement. The oversized staircase, as far as the first landing, contains a straight stairway which then splits into two parallel flights of stairs. Amongst the remarkable rooms are the Kaisersaal, (which here, as in other castles, was meant to indicate the close spiritual relationship with the Kaiser), the Hall of Mirrors, the White Room, the Venetian Room and the Court Church. Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, between 1750 and 1753, created here the largest continuous ceiling fresco
form which aimed at ostentation and outward appearances, so they had to stand and watch as the Italians and the Dutch were summoned to carry out the commissions. In these years, the establishment of porcelain factories had almost turned into a courtly sport. As early as 1718, a porcelain factory was created in Vienna which was followed in 1740 by one in Hochst, and in 1750 others opened in Berlin and Furstenberg. Then, in quick succession, the factories in Baden, Frankenthal and Nymphenburg, each
Prix de Rome, which included a four-year stay in Rome. He was incredibly productive, creating mythological scenes with seductive goddesses, AC Rococo 4C.qxp 11/24/2009 9:54 AM Page 51 51 AC Rococo 4C.qxp 11/24/2009 9:54 AM Page 52 Jean-Siméon Chardin, Girl with Racket and Shuttlecock, 1740. Oil on canvas, 82 x 66 cm. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. 52 Élisabeth Vigée-Le Brun, Self-Portrait at the Easel, 1790. Oil on canvas, 100 x 81 cm. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence.