Tracks and Signs of the Animals and Birds of Britain and Europe
This beautifully illustrated field guide enables you to easily identify the tracks and signs left by a wide variety of mammal and bird species found in Britain and Europe, covering behaviors ranging from hunting, foraging, and feeding to courtship, breeding, and nesting. Introductory chapters offer detailed drawings of footprints and tracks of large and small mammals, which are followed by sections on mammal scat, bird droppings, and the feeding signs of animals on food sources such as nuts, cones, and rose hips. The book then describes specific mammal species, providing information on size, distribution, behavior, habitat, and similar species, as well as more specific detail on tracks and scat. Distribution maps are also included.
This indispensable field guide covers 175 species of mammals and birds, and features a wealth of stunning color photos and artwork throughout.
- Helps you easily identify the tracks and signs of a variety of mammals and birds
- Covers 175 species
- Illustrated throughout with photos, drawings, and artwork
- ncludes informative descriptions of mammal species along with distribution maps
jays breed in large colonies, and these are good places to find many pellets, particularly under nests. Raven pellets. LG. Rook Jackdaw Oystercatcher Magpie Carrion Crow The pellets of Carrion Crow are 3–7 cm long and 1–2 cm wide and typically found near nests, in fields, and along the beach. Rook pellets are 3–4 cm long and 1–1.5 cm wide and usually found near rookeries, which can be large and very loud. Jackdaw pellets are 2.5–3 cm long and 1–1.5 cm wide and normally found near their
banks. Some male birds with colourful breeding plumage moult their body feathers in the spring but keep their old wing and tail feathers. In Scandinavia, Willow Ptarmigan moult their feathers three times a year. Male Mallards also go through three yearly moults, while male Long-tailed Ducks moult their feathers four times a year. Great Spotted Woodpecker. LG. Male Mallard. LG. Contour feather with down Curled upper tail covert feather Secondary with speculum feather Scapular feather
Red Deer like bathing and are good swimmers. In summer and autumn, they also wallow in mud along lake shores and on moors and even use small puddles, for example, pools formed by vehicle tracks. Red Deer rub off the mud against trees, which over time become smooth, and you will find hair on the trees and on ground nearby. A wallow. During the mating season, a Red Deer will scratch a hollow in the ground, an arena for rutting, in which it rolls the same way an Elk or Fallow Deer would. The
Loggerhead Turtle are skewed relative to one another, whereas those of Green Sea Turtle are symmetrical. You may also see drag marks from the tail in the sand, which form a rut. Sea turtles dig holes in the sand for their eggs. L-HO. Turtle tracks can resemble those of a seal, but they are deeper and more splayed, and the drag marks left by the turtle’s shell are broader than the marks left by a seal’s body. The track of a Loggerhead Turtle. L-HO. A Loggerhead Turtle on her way back to the
europaea 13, 89, 221 Teal 96 Tetrao urogallus 23, 30, 43, 44 Tetrastes bonasia 43 Thrush, Song 104 Tit, Great 69, 71, 99 Marsh 94 Penduline 93 Tringa nebularia 29 Tringa tetanus 29 Troglodytes troglodytes 94 Turdus iliacus 75 Turdus merula 33, 44, 75, 99 Turdus philomelos 104 Turdus pilaris 72, 73, 93 Turtle, Green Sea 269 Loggerhead 269 Tyto alba 82, 83 Ursus arctos 11, 35, 36, 61, 76, 106 Vanellus vanellus 29, 30 Vespertillo murinus 229 Vole, Bank 49, 68, 73, 74, 90, 211